I Forgive You. (A Short Story)

I am back with another short story from my collection. This was written somewhere back in 2011. I don’t know why I never shared this before. But, here it goes. Hope you like it and do leave your reviews!


 

I forgive you…

As I looked at the man who was once my life, I felt tears trying to make their way out of the confines of my eyes. No more. I am not going to cry for a weak man! I am not that weak. I immediately composed myself and channeled my emotions of hurt into hatred for him. He didn’t deserve me. I hate him more than anyone else in my life. He spoilt my life. He made my path full of thorns.

He is my husband. I wish I could add an ‘ex’ in front of ‘husband’, but sadly, we haven’t yet been divorced. We just got separated. He hates me almost as much as I hate him.  I used to love him more than I have ever loved someone. He was my life… my bane for existence.

But then, he blamed me for having an extra-marital affair with his younger brother. And all I knew was the fact that I was framed badly. His brother had framed me. Shocking? Yeah. But that’s the truth. His brother couldn’t see him wasting his life with a girl like me.

And so, he devised a plan where he framed me like a characterless woman in front of him and threw me out of his life. The fact that hurt was he actually believed him. I had learnt not to trust anyone easily. But I did. I did trust him and thought that he would protect me.

But he failed. While his brother tried to rape me, I struggled to come to his office and tell him the truth. But when I reached his office with my torn clothes and told him the truth, he accused me of being characterless. He accused me of trying to create differences between him and his brother. He accused me of sleeping with his brother and then making up a story to hide my sin.

Apparently, his brother had told him over the phone, what I was going to tell him. His brother had brain-washed him. I tried to make him understand, but he wouldn’t budge. He hated me. He put a question mark on my character. And this did it. I couldn’t live with a man, who didn’t trust me. So, I walked out.

I wish he understood me. He doubted my love for him. I pined for him. I was hurt, yet I couldn’t make myself hate him. Even though he didn’t even care if I existed or not, I loved him with all my heart. And even after all this, when I came to know that I was pregnant, I immediately told him. But he put up a question mark on the paternity of his own child.

He had said, “Are you sure that this baby is mine? Or is it my brother’s? Or, you sleep around with so many men, that you don’t even know the father’s name?”

This had sowed the seed of hatred for him in my heart. I had slapped him and moved out. With every passing day, my hurt turned into heartfelt hatred for him. I was living in a rented apartment. I earned enough to keep myself healthy for my baby’s sake.

I couldn’t even cry because of the effect it would have on our baby. No, my baby. Only mine. He had long forgotten his duties to have any bond with my baby.  After six months of separation, a court-notice was delivered on my doorstep. He wanted a divorce from me. And today, we were going to be divorced.

He made his way towards the court. And when he looked at me, heavily-pregnant, he stopped. Even after the six months of constant emotional turmoil, hurt and pain, he attracted me. My heart started beating heavily against my chest. His chocolate brown eyes, still made me drown.

His proximity melted my hatred. My heart started feeling. I felt hurt, all over again. Why can’t I move on? Why is it so difficult? Why doesn’t my heart, learns a lesson? Why am I still feeling for him? Why does he still possess the charisma to make me fall for him? I must really hate him!

He stopped in front of me, his eyes flashing a composed look. Oh no. He had shut down any emotional display which his eyes could portray. Yeah, his eyes spoke volumes. I loved that trait of his and it irritated me when he put a guard on his emotions.

He said, “Before going to the court, can we talk for a moment?”

Even though I really wanted to go and talk with him, I couldn’t do this to myself. I couldn’t fall back in his arms. I have been through a lot of shit, and I just can’t forget everything so easily.

So I said, “Is there anything left to talk?”

I saw hurt flash across his eyes. But then, he immediately composed himself and said, “You are right in your place, but can’t we talk for a moment? Just for few minutes?”

I saw no harm in doing so. I nodded. He gestured towards his car and asked me to sit in the passenger seat. When I raised my eyebrow, he shrugged nonchalantly.  Even though I had my suspicions, I let it go. I sat down and he started the car.

I asked, “Where exactly are we going?”

He said, “To the beach.”

After this, I sat back and gazed at the passing shops, out of the window. There were times when we had been in the same car and couldn’t keep our hands off each other. It pained me that we couldn’t even make an eye-contact, today. Soon, we reached the beach and got off the car. We removed our foot-wear and I followed him outside.

Beach was our favourite place. There were so many happy memories attached to the beach. We had always played with water and made sand-castles. We used to laugh together. He used to lift me by my waist and spin me around. It was the place where we had shared our first kiss. Today, I felt a void inside me. It was as if, all the happiness inside me had evaporated.

We stopped at a place, where the waves came and touched our feet. We used to love this feeling. Whenever we had a fight, we always came to the beach and sorted everything out. We used to stand like this only, for the waves calmed us down, and we could easily talk like two adults. I don’t know why he is doing this now.

I wanted to ask him the reason but before I could open my mouth, he asked, “Do you remember how we used to spend our times here? We used to be so content with each other. We were happy. What went wrong?”

I had the answer to it. I wanted to shout at him and tell him that he had changed. I wanted to tell him that he had killed everything between us. I wanted to tell him that I wished that he had trusted me. But instead of saying anything, I fell silent.

His fingers made their way towards my hand and he connected his finger with mine. I allowed it. For a moment, I felt complete. I felt as if nothing was wrong. Nothing had gone amiss. We were back to a couple, happily married. I could easily forget those six months. I was in a trance.

He said, “Do you know the reason why I brought you here?”

I shook my head. I had no idea. And for a moment, I didn’t even want to know. I was happy with him. But he broke our contact and stood in front of me. His eyes were very intense. They were reflecting my unshed tears. He was deeply hurt. He came closer.

He gently cradled my face in his hands and said, “I am tired of pretending that I don’t love you when I do. These six months have taught me that I can’t survive without you. Each day, without you, was hell. I can’t even begin to tell you, how much I missed you. It was, as if, I was breathing but not living. My heart was beating, yet it pained.”

He took a deep breath and continued, “It pained badly when I didn’t have you by my side. I couldn’t bring myself to move on. I just love you too much to do that. I want to forget everything of the past, and move on with you by my side. I don’t want to recall anything. I just want you back in my life. Without you, I cease to exist. I need you by my side.”

His words gave me hope. I felt tears engulfing my eyes. I love him so much. Even after everything that happened between us, I still love him. Even I want him by my side. I wanted to tell him how much I loved him and how much I missed him. I had gone through the same pain of separation. It had hurt me badly too. I had missed him badly.

I had needed him more than he could need me. Every living moment, I had wished he was there. I had wished he was there when I first came to know that our baby was a boy. I had wished for him to be there to feel our baby’s first kick. I was engulfed by intense emotions.

I had so much to say. I had so much to share with him. I wanted to tell him everything that happened, but my voice was choked with emotions. I had suppressed my emotions for so long, that now, they wanted to get out in a rush. I felt tears falling down my cheeks. He softly brushed my tears away, and I fell silent.

He said, “Hey, don’t cry. I can’t see tears in your eyes.”

I wanted to hug him. I wanted to show him how much I love him. He understood what I wanted and enveloped me in a hug. My tears knew no bounds. Six months of suppressed tears were coming out in a flow. He held me closer and soothed me down. His hands roamed across my back and he silently whispered soothing words in my ears. I felt at home.

He said, “Hush. Don’t cry, baby. Don’t ever cry. I forgive you.”

This was like a bucket of cold water on my emotions. I felt myself stiffen. He immediately sensed that something was amiss. I felt my body like a rod. He removed his hands from my back and faced me. I put some distance between us.

On seeing hatred on my face, he asked, “What’s wrong?”

I felt myself hating my own self. How can I live like this? I may love him deeply, but I can’t accept him when he thinks so ill of me. I can’t live with him, knowing that he still didn’t believe me. I can’t be happy with him, knowing he didn’t trust me.

I can’t share my secrets with him, knowing that he still didn’t trust me. I can’t start a new life with him, knowing that the ground is unstable. I can’t live like his wife, knowing that my house on the ground, that had bends of doubt in them. I can’t sacrifice my self-respect for him. I don’t deserve this. I never deserved it. I deserve better.

I forced myself to be strong and asked, “When did I ever ask you for your forgiveness?”

I saw his face show surprise, but he quickly composed himself. He lovingly said, “You didn’t, but I forgive you. I am not asking you to ask for forgiveness, I am simply forgiving you.”

I was beyond caring by this time. I said, “Well you know what? Keep that with you. I don’t want your forgiveness. I have never done anything wrong.”

His face turned into a scowl. He was angry. His eyes showed a little amount of hurt in them. I wish I could correct everything, but I was beyond hurt. I couldn’t heal his wounds when mine were fresh.

With a venom-laced voice, he said, “You still have the audacity to say that you are pure? Even after everything you did? Even after you cheated on me?”

It took all my strength to fight back a sob. I put up a brave face and said, “Yes. Believe me or don’t believe me, but I am done explaining. I told you once; I never slept with your brother. He tried to rape me.”

His eyes were bitter. With a perplexed voice, he said, “I don’t understand. Why are you pretending? I forgive you!”

This cut deep. I couldn’t take it anymore. I had to do something before I was hurt beyond repair. This already had inflected some incurable wounds on my self-esteem. I couldn’t degrade myself anymore in front of my own eyes. So, I simply shut off all my emotions.

In a robotic voice, I told him, “I am out of here. I want to go away.”

Immediately, he said, “Please, please don’t test me. I am tired. I don’t want you to go anywhere. I really love you. My heart still longs for you. I lost the battle of trying to hate you. I still love you as much as I did earlier.”

His face showed his tiredness. He was begging me to stay. His eyes were pleading me to understand. If only, he understood. We may love each other, but I couldn’t do this to myself. He said he loves me, yet, he didn’t trust me. I fell silent. At my silence, he nudged me.

He shook me and asked, “Silence? Is that all you have? Why don’t you say something? Why don’t you feel something? I am forgiving you. I am ready to accept you and the baby, and not doubt that it may be my brother’s. I want to forget the past. Let’s move on to a new life. I really forgive you.”

Oh. My. God! He still had doubts about his own baby. I can’t believe that I even thought about forgiving him, ever for a moment. I can’t live with a man, who had doubts about his own baby! My baby deserves better. I decided to inflect the same hurt he has, on me.

In a detached tone, I said, “You know, I have decided to go out of your life. But before going, let me tell you one thing. You said that you forgive me. You stood there and told me that the past didn’t matter any longer because you wanted to forget everything and move on. Well, you may forgive me, but I won’t ever forgive you.”

He thought that I was mad. I could see it in his face. I knew that he didn’t believe my audacity to even think about blaming him. He thought that I had gone crazy. He was angry. But then, I decided to come out clean, once and for all. This would be the last time I am going to explain.

So, I continued, “You have betrayed me. You weren’t there when I badly needed you. I thought you would protect me, but you failed. Your brother assaulted me that night. I was badly bruised. My clothes were torn and yet, you thought I cheated on you. Would you mind telling me that if I had actually slept with your brother willingly, why was I badly bruised, covered in blood and why were my clothes torn?”

I could almost see the wheels turning in his mind. He was recalling everything that had happened. I could see sweat breaking out of his brow. He wanted to say something. I couldn’t afford to let him speak now. If I did, I would never be able to speak again.

And so, I said, “You know what the funny thing is? It is the fact that I thought that you would believe me. But you didn’t. You were so hell-bent on thinking that your brother can never do that. I felt so disgusted when he tried to touch me in a way that only you were allowed to touch. I saved myself anyhow and came to you for support, but according to you, I had slept with your brother and I had cheated on you.”

I paused and saw him finally realizing that he was wrong. The facts were finally sinking into his mind. He had finally started to believe me. But then, it didn’t matter anymore. It was all over. He didn’t believe me when it mattered.

I said, “You should have been the one to believe me. You should have held me and soothed me down. But you didn’t. Just now, you said that you love me. You know what? I don’t believe you. Love shouldn’t hurt this much. Love means trust but you don’t even have an ounce of trust in me. You believed the worst of me. You even doubted about the paternity of your own baby boy! How could you doubt me?”

I took a deep breath to control the ache in my heart. I could see him trying to make amends. There were tears in his eyes. He finally believed me. But I knew that deep down; even he understood that our relationship was truly over.

I continued, “The thing that hurts me the most, is that I still don’t have it in me to hate you. Yeah, I still love you unconditionally. Today, I was going to start a new life with you and move on, until you said ‘I forgive you’. As soon as you said these words, I decided that I couldn’t do this to myself. I deserved to be treated better than this. Our baby deserved better than to be doubted upon. I just can’t do this anymore.”

I brushed off my tears. One look at his face told me everything I needed to know. He finally knew everything. And he knew that now, I won’t be coming back in his life. Our relationship was broken beyond repair. I knew that he understood. I moved closer to him and gently kissed him.

I added softly, “I really love you, but I can’t forgive you.”

After this, I moved back. I left. I finally got my self-esteem back. I finally got myself back. Now, I could move on. I can start a new life. With the ghosts of my past laid out in open, I felt stronger than I have felt in years. I felt like I was already healing. Maybe it was time to open a new chapter in my life.


 

This was written long back and there are bound to be errors. I could have removed them but I didn’t want to alter the story in any way. The protagonist, like in all my stories, is a strong girl who lives life on her terms. Through this story, I truly want to propagate the search of strength from within in order to rise from societal norms. Be brave and shine, for the life is only yours to live!

  • Mahak Goel
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COST QUALITY IN MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING

Cost of quality in Managerial Accounting

INTRODUCTION

The cost of quality is referred to as the total amount of money needed for the product to meet the consumer’s expectations which should be of superior quality. When the product succeeds to meet the customer’s expectations by eliminating any cost incurred on lower grade quality, it is referred to as quality.

There are two primary types of quality involved during this process- Quality design (engineering department handles this) and Quality of conformance (entire company is associated.) This is used for determining the cost incurred in eliminating the poor quality resources and raise the quality of the product along with the internal and external results. The team product is obtained by implementing improvements with the help of the information that is provided by the organization collectively.

A product meeting or exceeding the design specifications that is free of any defects marring its appearance or bringing down its performance, is referred to as the product of superior or high quality. Example, an economy car free of defects can have the quality of conformance of a defect-free luxury car. The consumers can’t expect the economy car to work as a luxury car, but they can expect it to be free of any defects whatsoever.

Quality costs or costs of quality are prevention, detection and dealing of defects that cause the costs. The term quality cost is the sum total of all the costs that are used for prevention of defects in a product or the result from the defects in the products. (Bottorff, D. L., 2007)

Quality costs are of four major types that group into four broad groups. Two of these are known as the prevention cost and appraisal cost. Both of them are used in an effort to stop the costumers from having defective products into their hands. The other types of costs are known as internal failure costs and the external failure cost. Internal failure cost and external failure cost arise because it is not necessary that prevention always work. Defects can come despite the efforts undertaken to prevent the defects in the products. Thus, they are even known are the costs of the poor quality.

Quality costs do not come only under manufacturing department but they also relate to each and every activity that a company does, right from the initial research that goes into the product to the development of the product through customer service. The gross or net or total quality cost can reach quite high until and unless the management gives it a special attention.

Internal failure costs are the costs that occur with the defects that are found in the product even before the customer receives the service or the product. External failure costs occur when the defects are detected after the product or service is received by the customer. Appraisal costs are the costs that occur in determining the degree of conformance to meet the requirements of quality. Prevention costs are the costs that occur in keeping the failure to a minimum along with lowering the appraisal costs.

Cost quality is the methodology used by the company for determining the extent to which the resources are being used for the activities preventing the poor quality, that in turn appraise the quality of the company’s products or the services resulting from the internal and external failures. Such information comes in handy for determining the price that can be saved later on by implementation of the processed improvement. (Horngren, C. T., 2009)

 

COSTS OF CONTROL OR COSTS OF CONFORMANCE

  • PREVENTION COSTS

They are incurred for prevention and avoidance of quality problems. These are associated with the designing, implementation and maintaining the quality management system. They are taken into account before the actual operation. It is so because the cost for prevention of a problem from ever happening is lesser than finding it later on and rectifying it.

Tools from total quality management are used by the companies to prevent any defects. These include-

  • Requirements of the product or service i.e. the establishing the specifications for the incoming materials, finished products, services, processes
  • Quality planning i.e. creating the plans for production, operation, quality, reliability and inspection of the products
  • Quality assurance i.e. creating and maintaining the quality system
  • Training i.e. developing, preparing, and maintaining the programs.
  • Workforce development
  • Systems development and management
  • Statistical process control is the technique used for detecting whether a process is in or is out of control. Out of control process is the one that results in defective units owing to a machine fault or some other factor. In control statistical process is the one where the workers use charts for monitoring the quality of units passing through their workstations. With the help of these charts, workers quickly spot the processes that are not in control, creating defects. Problems are rectified immediately instead of waiting for an inspector to catch them later on.
  • Quality circle is an organisation of people who meet regularly to discuss ways of improving the quality. Management people and the workers included.
  • Investment in information systems related to quality

 

  • APPRAISAL COSTS

These are the costs that incur with the monitoring and measuring the activities that are related to the quality. These are the costs that are associated when the customer’s and the suppliers’ evaluate the quality of the purchased materials, products, processes, services etc for ensuring that they all conform to the specifications.

These are also known as inspection costs. These include-

  • Verification i.e. inspecting and checking the quality of incoming materials, products, process setup against the specification that was agreed on.
  • Quality audits i.e. confirming and rechecking that the system for quality inspection is working correctly or accurately.
  • Supplier rating i.e. assessing and also approving the suppliers for products and services.
  • Acceptance testing
  • Checking of labour
  • Setup for test and inspection
  • Equipments for test and inspection
  • Field testing

 

COSTS OF FAILURE OF CONTROL OR COSTS OF NON-CONFORMANCE

  • INTERNAL FAILURE COSTS

Internal failure costs arise to remedy the defects that are discovered or found before the product or the service manages to reach the customer or is delivered to the customer. These arise when the fruits of labour i.e. the work result fails to reach the set design quality and standards. They include-

  • Waste i.e. holding of stock or performing unnecessary work owing to poor organization, errors, lack of communication clarity.
  • Scrap i.e. any product or material with defects that is unable to be repaired, used or even sold.
  • Rework or rectification i.e. the process of correction of the defective material or the errors incurred.
  • Failure analysis i.e. the activity that is required for establishment of the causes that caused the failure of internal product or service.
  • Material procurement costs

The more a company’s appraisal activities are effective, there would be greater chance of catching the defects internally and there would be greater level of the internal failure costs. This price is paid to avoid the external failure cost which is extremely high.

 

  • EXTERNAL FAILURE COSTS

These are the costs that occur to correct or remedy the errors or defects that get discovered by the customers and they report about it to the company. They occur when the products or the services fail to reach the set design quality and standards and they remain undetected until after they get transferred to the consumer. These include-

  • Repairs and servicing of all the products that get returned and also the ones those remain in the field.
  • Warranty claims of the failed products that get replaced or are serviced and are re-performed on under the claims of guarantee.
  • Product service
  • Product liability even from the legal actions taken against the company
  • Recalling the products
  • Complaints made out of warranty
  • Complaints i.e. all the work and the costs that are associated with the service and handling of the complaints made by the customer.
  • Returns i.e. handling and investigating the rejected or the recalled products including their transportation costs.
  • Loss of reputation

Such incurred costs can decimate the earned profits. If problems are not solved at the correct time and at each and every stage, then there are high external failure costs, ill will of the customers and decline in the market share and also profits.

External failure costs give rise to another of intangible cost. This results in tarnishing the company’s image and they can be multiple times greater than the tangible costs. Intangible costs of quality can be quality problems or even missing a deadline.

Cost of poor quality is when internal failure costs, external failure costs and the intangible costs impair the goodwill of the company owing to their poor quality. (Kaplan, R. S., & Atkinson, A. A, (2015)

 

QUALITY COST AND ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES

To ensure that the effect of quality on the organisation is desirable, the costs incurred in doing a quality job, in conducting the quality improvement, in achieving the set goals should be carefully monitored and regulated.

The quality effort is measured by such costs and thus they are better obtained by the analysis of the cost quality. The analysis of this provides a method that can assess the effectiveness of the management that assesses quality and also be a means of determination of the problematic areas, savings, opportunities, and priorities for action.

Cost of quality is an essential and extremely important communication tool to raise the awareness of the importance of the quality. Philip Crosby called the measure as the “price of non-conformance” and also stated that the organisations choose to pay for the poor quality.

Majority of organisations have quality-related costs that go as high as the 15% or 20% of the sales revenue that compares to going as high as the 40% of the total operations. The general rule of thumb states that the costs for poor quality in a thriving company are approximately around 10% to 15% of its operations. Effective quality improvement programs are helpful in reducing the costs substantially which directly helps in incurring profits.

The quality cost system, once verified, installed and established, has a dynamic and positive impact on the achievements of the organisation’s mission, goals and objectives.

 

VARITIES OF QUALITY

There are two varieties of quality that a company has to sort out- one arises in the engineering department and the other that is the responsibility of the entire organisation.

  • Quality of Style

This is the power of the organisation for styling a product conforming to the standard expectations of a client. In other words, the standard expectations of the customer intended for the merchandise, this type of quality needs quality if interpretation of what the engineers understand about the expectations of the client’s wish and how they go about it to integrate those needs in the final product style.

If the quality doesn’t get designed into the very fundamental structure of the product, then there would  be no way of improving the standard state of the affairs later on, and would lead to the commutation of the merchandise with a replacement version if it.

  • Quality of Agreement

This is the power of the organisation or company to deliver a product that conforms completely to the set initial product style. This isn’t the sole responsibility of the assembly department but everyone else also helps in assuring such quality. The buying workers acquire the right materials; the shipping department ensures delivery of goods without harm and the promotion department helps in communicating the attributes about the merchandise that are most essential to the customers. (Garrison, R. H., 2003)

 

TOTAL QUALITY

The Total Quality Management (TQM) is a key driver for client satisfaction and success for business. Economic processes increases the amount of competition and also drive towards the higher product quality. This can be also achieved by incorporation of elaborate standards into the managing and producing processes.

There’s globally recognized organisation namely the World Organisation for Standardization, which sets the standards and tips concerning processes that are the driving forces behind the assembly of quality products.

ISO 9000 like certifications that an organisation or company demonstrates that it is with success that enforces quality management standards. This is the major reason for that is becoming vital for choosing the world mercantilism partners.

An important task of the TQM is fretting quality by examining products and processes to the different types of world class corporations. This method of comparison is also known as benchmarking.

 

LIMITATIONS OF COST OF QUALITY

  • Inputs of the cost of quality information can be deficient.
  • Cost of quality definitions are unclear, cannot be completely comprehended. They can be brought after translation and execution.
  • Management often does not effectively utilize the Cost of Quality information and they often make choices without acknowledging or considering the effect of them on the cost of quality.
  • There is minimal effect on net impact if there are no improvements that are carried out amid undertaking endorsement choices on the cost of quality.
  • Fathering the cost of quality can be tedious and slow.

 

 

REFERENCES

Bottorff, D. L. (2007). COQ systems: the right stuff. Quality progress, 30(3), 33.

Campbell, V. S. (2005). The cost of quality. Production and Inventory Management Journal, 36(3), 43.

Garrison, R. H., Noreen, E. W., & Brewer, P. C. (2003). Managerial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Hilton, R. W. (1991). Managerial accounting. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Horngren, C. T. (2009). Cost accounting: A managerial emphasis, 13/e. Pearson Education.

Horngren, C. T., Datar, Foster, G., & Horngren, C. T. (2002). Management and cost accounting. Harlow: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

Kaplan, R. S., & Atkinson, A. A. (2015). Advanced management accounting. PHI Learning.

Youde, R. K. (1992). Cost-of-quality reporting: how we see it. Strategic Finance, 73(7), 34.

 

WIDENING TRADE DEFICIT

Widening trade deficit sees UK industrial and construction outputs decrease

 

According to the statistics, the widening trade deficit in UK saw the decline of output in Industrial and construction sector, for the third consecutive month in March. UK’s economy has lost its footing in the beginning of 2017 with severe fallouts, showing the impact of the last year’s Brexit vote on the economy.

While the builders and manufacturers reportedly claimed to have high hopes for growth and increase in the export orders, the figures of the Office for National Statistics show something else altogether. According to the figures obtained from ONS, the output has decreased in the first month itself.

Almost 15% of the economy is dominated by the Industrial sector, but it fell further by 0.7% in February followed by a decline of 0.5% in March. The unseasonal warm weather contributed to a part of the decline, decreasing the output of oil and gas consumption by 4.6%. The manufacturing also declines by 0.6% in March.

Despite the growth in house building, infrastructure- repair and maintenance hit a fall. Analysts expect 0.4% decline in industrial output and 0.4% expansion in construction sector in the months.

With UK’s growth depending heavily on consumer, economists believe that inflation would outpace the wage growth. Hospitality sector has surpasses the pre-crisis level of output but the industrial and construction sects have to yet fully recover.

National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) estimated the decline of economic growth by 0.2% in April. The 0.7% decline in construction output in March gave rise to the fear of UK economy facing slowdown.

There is uncertainty and the slowdown about Britain’s future relationship with European Union. People are expecting the Bank of England to keep their interest rates as low as possible for two more years. Consumers have become vary of spending money owing to inflation.

Some set of surveys suggest that the year has begun well enough for the manufacturers, however, no official records for the same can be found. The ONS has suggested that Britain’s economy has grown by 0.3% in first quarter which is not as big a rise as in 2016.

Uk’s trade deficit has increased by £5.7bn to £10.7bn in 2017, the first quarter, when compared to the previous quarter. ONS’s records shows that Britain’s goods trade deficit has widened to £13.441bn which is better than the forecast of Reuter’s poll of economists of £11.8bn.

Even though import and export has increased since Feb 2016, there has been decline in the growth of export. There has been decline of 0.2% in export of goods in the first quarter and the import volumes have managed to jump by 3.3%. The trade deficit has grown because there has been import of chemicals and cars as well as oil and mechanical machinery from the European Union.

Theresa May, British Prime Minister, is expected to win the 8 June national elections, despite the weak start of economy.

The total trade deficit, inclusive of the Britain’s surplus services, in the first quarter accounts for 10.540 billion pounds which accounts for more than double decline in the fourth quarter.

The ONS’s figures for the construction output in March rose to 2.4 percent on the year while showing a decline of 0.7% in the month. The Reuters poll accounts to growth of 0.3% and 2.8%.